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Happy birthday, fish & chips! Celebrating 150 years of a great Great British institution.
Our favourite takeaway dish has survived many fads, famine and wars to keep its place firmly in the nation's heart.
1 The UK has an estimated 10,500 fish and chip shops.
2 On any Friday, one in five takeaways are from the chippy.
3 They have a third fewer calories than other popular takeaways.
4 A portion contains 30 per cent of a female's recommended daily calorie intake and 23 per cent for a man.
5 Lancastrians claim the first chip shop – John Lees in Mossley, near Oldham in 1863.
6 Cockneys beg to differ, pointing to Joseph Malin's shop set up in Cleveland Street in London's East End in 1860.
7 In 1838 Charles Dickens wrote about fried fish warehouses in Oliver Twist. The warehouses were forerunners to the fish and chip shop.
8 In Dickensian Britain, fish weren't served with chips but bread or baked potatoes.
9 They were sold cold by street vendors at a penny a portion from trays hung around the vendors' necks.
10 The first Jewish cookbook, published in the UK in 1846, included a recipe for fried fish.
11 Portions were originally fried in beef dripping; in parts of Yorkshire, this is still preferred.
12 A variety of oils is now used to cook them.
13 Carbon dioxide in beer batter results in a lighter texture as well as an orange colour.
14 The UK fish and chip market is now worth £1.2bn.
15 An estimated 229 million portions of fried fish are sold every year.
16 More than 277 million portions of chips are also sold annually.
17 More than half the UK adult population visits a fish and chip shop at least once a month.
18 In the early 20th century, a portion of fish and chips with mushy peas at 6d added vital protein and vitamins to the usual diet of bread, dripping, tea and condensed milk.
19 So essential did the dish become to ordinary men and women that one shop in Bradford had to employ a doorman to control the queue at busy times during 1931.
20 The Territorial Army prepared for battle on fish and chips provided in special catering tents erected at training camps in the 1930s.
21 Its importance meant it was the only takeaway food not rationed during the Second World War.
22 Frederick Lord Woolton, wartime food minister, allowed mobile frying vans to cater for evacuees.
23 The potato is thought to have been brought to England from the New World in the 17th century by Sir Walter Raleigh.
24 A floury potato is best for chips; waxy potatoes can often result in greasy chips.
25 The British Nutrition Foundation says an average portion of fish and chips contains 20.6g of fat.
26 A fish supper has approximately three times less fat than chicken tikka masala and rice.
27 It compares in a similar way to sweet and sour pork with egg-fried rice, which weighs in with 38.6g fat.
28 An average serving of chips contains more than double the fibre found in an average serving of brown rice or bowl of porridge.
29 A portion of chips contains less fat that a prawn mayonnaise sandwich.
30 You can get a third of your daily vitamin C from a portion of chips.
31 Thick chips absorb less oil than thin ones, so chunky chips are healthier.
32 Pinnacles in Seahouses is the Hairy Bikers favourite fish and chip restaurant.
33 The UK's favourite fish choice is cod, which accounts for six out of 10 portions sold.
34 Haddock comes in second, at 25 per cent.
35 The remaining 13.5 per cent includes hake, halibut, plaice, pollock and sole.
36 Cod landed in the UK is now strictly regulated to prevent over-fishing and extinction.
37 One in six UK adults enjoys fish and chips once or twice a week.
38 The best potato variety for chips is maris piper.
39 Maris piper potatoes take 150 days to mature from plantation.
40 Britain now grows more maris pipers, dubbed the "chippies' choice", than any other variety.
41 Fish and chips have 595 calories in the average portion – an average pizza has 871; Big Mac meal with fries has 888.
42 National Chip Week, organised by the British Potato Council, takes place next month.
43 £1 out of every hundred spent on food is spent on fish and chips.
44 The industry employs some 61,000 people.
45 One out of every four British potatoes – 1.25 million tons every year – ends life as a chip.
46 Fish and chips outsell Indian takeaways by four to one.
47 In the UK, waste frying fat is a vital source of bio diesel.
48 Fish on Fridays stems from the Catholic tradition of not eating meat on Fridays – especially during Lent.
49 Cod has existed as a species for at least 120 million years.
50 Most cod is caught off Scotland but eaten in England. Scots prefer haddock.